A computer is an electronic machine, which is instructed to perform certain logical or arithmetic operations automatically through computer software. Modern computers are able to execute a very wide array of operations, known as applications. These applications enable modern computers to do an almost infinite number of tasks. Applications also allow users to create virtual computers that run inside a complex network of computers. Applications and computer software help in managing files and information, storing them, retrieving them from a computer system, and the use of tcp/ip allows for the transmission of accurate and correct data between devices. The storage of data and information has become much easier over the years because of the invention of the computer.
Computer hardware is usually sold as part of a computer system package. Common computer hardware includes motherboards, processors, printed circuit boards (PCBs), hard drives, memory cards, keyboards, optical drives, video input devices such as monitors, input devices such as scanners, output devices such as printers and monitors, and additional software. In a typical computer system, all of the components are permanently installed in a standard computer case. Computer hardware is typically divided into electronic circuits (ECs) and components. Components are embedded in larger circuit boards called modules. Modules are generally made of one of four types of electronic materials: silicon, pium, copper, or plastic.
The most basic computer hardware comprises a processing unit (CPU). The CPU is the central processing unit of a computer system which controls all other internal mechanisms. All other internal mechanisms of a computer are controlled directly by the CPU. A typical personal computer has a fixed memory, a random access memory (RAM), a central processing unit (CPU) that can execute instructions stored in the input devices, an application processor that executes computer programs stored in the output devices, a graphics processing unit (AGU) that outputs the computer output, and a monitor that present the computer’s current state.
The operating system controls the execution of instructions within the CPU. It also controls the communication between the input and output devices and between the internal software and hardware components of the computer system. The operating system is usually a kernel that controls how the CPU works. A user interface, or desktop environment, displays what the user is doing on the computer. The desktop environment includes icons, menus, toolbars, and windows which all control how the computer is used.
Output devices, or keyboards, refer to any device that gives information to the user. The computer software may communicate with external hardware such as printers or scanners. Input devices, or keyboards, refer to any device that gives information to the user.
Digital devices, or microchips, are any type of material that can store data using electrical signals rather than electromagnetism. For example, a digital computer system may use a microchip to collect customer demographic information and to process that information electronically. An analog computer system stores information electronically. Both digital and analog computer systems use one or more microchips to collectively store data.
The computer’s central processing unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer system. The CPU is usually part of a mainframe computer system that includes other devices such as input and output devices, and processors. The tasks of the CPU include executing instructions stored in the main memory and transferring data from the input devices to output devices. The speed at which the CPU performs these tasks depends largely on the speed of its input and output devices, the speed of its microchips, and its access to and storage of data and instructions. The speed of a CPU can be affected by problems in any of these three areas.
Instructions, or instructions for computing, are carried out by microchips through binary code. The binary code is composed of a series of ones and zeros that give instructions for a computer to follow. In many computers, this includes a series of instructions for the CPU to process data that has been fed into it. Instructions are read from and executed in the input and output devices. Output devices, such as a printer or monitor, are designed to display information or instructions that have been read from an input device.